Pregnancy is a joyful and reverent period in a woman's life, but it is also associated with a certain number of experiences. One of them is bleeding.

Can there be periods during pregnancy (expert says)

Do periods come in early pregnancy

The menstrual cycle consists of several phases, each associated with certain changes in a woman's body.

  • The first phase is follicular. It starts on the first day of menstruation and continues until ovulation. In this phase, the level of the hormone estrogen gradually increases. This leads to the growth of the endometrium and the development of follicles in the ovaries. Ovulation occurs approximately on the 14-15th day of the cycle, characterized by the release of a mature egg from the ovary.
  • The next phase is the luteal. Starts after ovulation, continues until the next menstruation . In this phase, the level of the hormone progesterone begins to rise, which supports the development of the endometrium and prepares the body for pregnancy. If it does not occur, the level of hormones drops. This leads to rejection of the endometrium and the beginning of a new cycle.

During pregnancy, the menstrual cycle stops as the fertilized egg attaches itself to the walls of the uterus and begins to develop into an embryo.

A common question: can menstruation go on during early pregnancy?Some women experience bleeding during this period, which can be mistaken for menstruation, especially if the new condition is not yet known.. This can occur in the first weeks after conception, when the embryo penetrates (implants) into the uterine wall, or later due to the threat of miscarriage, when the fetal egg or placenta detaches from the uterine wall at a later date.

How to determine if a woman is pregnant

In addition to tests (which often give incorrect results) and physiological signs (delayed menstruation, morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness, changes in food and smell preferences, frequent visits to the toilet), there are two most accurate methods:

  • blood test for hCG: effective on the 8-10th day after the intended conception;
  • Ultrasound of the pelvic organs: the fetal egg is visualized after 2-3 weeks (the size of the fetal egg is 1-2 mm).

How to distinguish bleeding during pregnancy from menstruation

  1. The amount of bleeding. During menstruation, a woman usually has heavy bleeding, which lasts from 3 to 7 days. During pregnancy, bleeding is usually small and short.
  2. The color of blood. During menstruation, the blood is usually dark red, while during pregnancy bleeding it is light pink or brown.
  3. Regularity. Menstruation occurs regularly every month, and bleeding during pregnancy can occur unexpectedly at any time, usually preceded by pain.

Main causes of bleeding

  • Implantation bleeding. It occurs as a result of the attachment of a fertilized egg to the wall of the uterus, usually lasting for several days. However, it can be easily confused with normal menstruation, so it is necessary to consult a doctor to rule out other causes and keep the pregnancy going.
  • Ectopic pregnancy. Occurs when a fertilized egg attaches outside the uterus, such as in the fallopian tube, ovary, or other organs. This is a serious complication that can lead to severe bleeding, rupture of the organ, and even death of the woman, so surgery must be performed immediately.
  • Premature detachment of the placenta. The placenta is a complex structure formed by intertwined vessels of the fetus and mother. It prevents harmful substances from the mother's body from entering the child's body, and also removes the baby's waste products into the mother's blood. With premature detachment of the placenta, the vessels narrow sharply. This leads to circulatory disorders, and sometimes to severe bleeding. The condition is very dangerous and requires immediate medical attention.
There are a number of reasons why bleeding may still occur in the early stages, for example, imbalance of hormones, infections, isthmic-cervical insufficiency. If you notice bleeding in the early stages of your pregnancy or suspect it may be a possibility, it is important to see your doctor to determine the cause and choose the right therapy.

Is menstruation possible in the later stages? 

In the later stages of pregnancy, menstruation does not occur, since the uterus is already occupied with the development of the fetus and cannot reject the walls. However, some women in the later period may experience bleeding associated with various causes, for example, placental abruption , premature rupture of the membranes, infections. In any case, bleeding during pregnancy is an indication to see a doctor to assess the health of the mother and fetus and rule out problems.

When to call an ambulance

  • Bleeding. If this happens, you should immediately consult a doctor or call an ambulance. The causes of etmu are different - placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, infections.
  • Stomach ache. If there is severe pain in the abdomen or lower back, this may be a sign of preterm labor or other pathologies associated with pregnancy.
  • Dizziness, loss of consciousness. If these or other signs of lack of oxygen appear, you should immediately call an ambulance.
  • High blood pressure. High blood pressure, swelling can be a sign of preeclampsia (a symptom complex that occurs during a pathological pregnancy). This can be hazardous to the health of both mother and child.
  • Breathing problems. They can signal  asthma or thick blood (pregnancy can be a triggering factor). 
If you have any problems or discomfort, you should definitely consult your doctor. He will assess the condition and prescribe the necessary treatment.