How to make a diet of proteins, fats, carbohydrates: the right combinations and foods

 In fact, all our food consists of three main components. But for some reason, different diets are trying to deprive us of any of them. We tell you why you can’t do this and what should be the correct ratio of proteins, fats and carbohydrates in the diet.

How to make a diet of proteins, fats, carbohydrates: the right combinations and foods

Food is the basis of life. It not only helps to survive, but is also a source of good mood, endurance, excellent physical shape. How is it that the source of life leads to the main problem of our time - obesity. It's all about the wrong combination of its main components.


Why do we need proteins, fats and carbohydrates

Food is primarily a certain ratio of proteins , fats and carbohydrates (BJU). Each of them has its own area of ​​responsibility.


Protein is a building material. Without it, even a very wide bone will have very little meat.


Carbohydrates are the fuel of our body. Without them, we will not be able to lead an active lifestyle, create and invent. The brain is a big fan of carbohydrates and requires them in the process of mental activity.


Fats are involved in many chemical processes. They are a reserve in case of environmental degradation.


Thus, each of them is vital, but only in the amount that covers the needs of the body here and now.


The ratio of BJU in the diet

Our ancestors led a mobile lifestyle. A large amount of hard work required high-calorie food. For most of the population of the 19th century, malnutrition and even starvation were commonplace. The energy reserves of the body should have been enough until the next harvest.

Now the food itself comes to our house, it is enough to press a couple of buttons. The process of earning is often based on mental rather than physical activity, therefore, the need for movement itself disappears.

Modern man will not eat everything he has got. He will choose what is tastier, and these are most often fats and carbohydrates. Where in the population experiences a systematic protein deficiency (up to 99% of the inhabitants receive less of this essential component) with an excess of fats detected (87.3% consume them in a larger volume than required).

The solution to this problem was the compilation of a rational menu based on the balance of the main components. It is very important to correctly compose a daily diet of proteins, fats, carbohydrates.

It should be remembered that for normal life, adult men need to consume 65-117 g / day of protein, women - 58-87 g / day. Children under 1 year old - 2.2-2.9 g / kg of body weight, over 1 year old - 36-87 g / day. And these are: milk, dairy products, eggs, meat and meat products, fish, seafood.

Note that proteins of animal origin are absorbed by the body by 93-96%. At the same time, proteins of animal origin from the total amount of proteins for adults - 50%, and for children - 60%.

Fat is required from 70 to 154 g/day for men and from 60 to 102 g/day for women. Children should consume 40-97 g/day.

Carbohydrates should make up the lion's share of the diet - 257-586 g / day (50-60% of the daily energy requirement) in adults and 170-420 g / day in children. Preference should be given to long (slow) carbohydrates, such as cereals, grain breads, durum wheat pasta, while sweet pastries should be minimized.

The calorie content of the meals consumed should be taken into account , which for women leading a sedentary lifestyle should be 1500-1700 kilocalories.

For a man employed in the office, the calorie content should be 2000-2500 kilocalories.

The higher your activity, the more kilocalories your body needs - and vice versa, the less a person moves, the lower the calorie content should be.

It is advisable to start the day with porridge, for lunch, as well as for dinner, you need to eat food containing protein: fish, chicken, meat. Snacks can be cottage cheese or yogurt.

Even on a diet, one must remember that proteins, fats, and carbohydrates are important. Do not give up fats or carbohydrates on your own.

It is worth remembering that any diet should be prescribed by a doctor, based on the needs of your body. Only in this way will it benefit and give an effect.

Fiber in the diet

Another important element that you cannot do without in a healthy diet is fiber.

It is the structural (fibrous) part of plant foods such as fruits, vegetables, and grains that our body cannot digest or break down.

There are two types of fiber: soluble and insoluble.

  1. Soluble: Dissolves in water to form a sticky gel. This can slow down the passage of food from the stomach to the intestines. It contains oats, barley, bananas, potatoes and soft parts of apples and pears.
  2. Insoluble: does not dissolve in water. It retains water, which contributes to a softer bowel movement and normalization of the stool (reducing the number of constipation and diarrhea). Examples include whole bran, whole grains, nuts, corn, carrots, grapes, berries, and the skins of apples and pears.


What else is useful 

Research has shown that a diet rich in dietary fiber is associated with many health benefits, including the following:

  • Lowers Cholesterol : Soluble fiber has been shown to lower cholesterol levels by removing bile (and cholesterol) from the body. This may help reduce the risk of heart disease.
  • Regulates blood sugar levels: Foods high in fiber slow down the digestion process, which can help prevent a rapid rise in blood sugar levels.
  • Controls weight: A diet high in fiber can help you stay full longer, which prevents overeating and feeling hungry between meals.
  • May prevent bowel cancer: Insoluble fiber increases the volume and speed of food through the intestinal tract, which reduces the time for the accumulation of harmful substances.
  • Prevents constipation: This unpleasant symptom can be alleviated by increasing the amount of fiber in your diet. It helps regulate bowel movements by drawing water into the colon to make stools softer and bulkier. This action helps to increase the frequency of trips to the toilet.

How much fiber to eat

It is recommended to consume about 25-35 grams of total fiber per day, with the addition of 10-15 grams of soluble or 14 grams of fiber per 1,000 calories. This can be achieved by choosing 170 grams of grains, 2.5 cups of vegetables, and 2 cups of fruit per day (based on a 2,000 calorie daily allowance).

However, with age, the need for fiber decreases. For people over 70, the recommendation for women is 21 grams and for men, 30 grams total per day.

Important: A diet high in fiber can affect the absorption and effectiveness of some medications. Talk to your doctor about which medicines to take with caution and when to take them. Also, while on a high-fiber diet, be sure to drink at least eight glasses of fluid per day.

How to increase the content of dietary fiber in the menu

  • Add fiber to your diet gradually. Too much at once can cause cramping, bloating, and constipation.
  • Be sure to drink enough fluids (at least 8 glasses a day) to prevent constipation.
  • Choose foods that list whole grains as the first ingredient rather than fortified flour. Whole wheat flour is a whole grain, but wheat flour is not.
  • Choose whole grain bread with 2-4 grams of dietary fiber per slice.
  • Choose grains that contain at least 5 grams of dietary fiber per serving.
  • Choose raw fruits and vegetables instead of juice and eat them with the skin on.
  • Try fiber alternatives like whole grain buckwheat, whole grain couscous, quinoa, bulgur, wheat germ, chia seeds, hemp seeds, lentil paste and edamame.
  • Popcorn is a whole grain. Cook it lean, without butter, for a healthier snack.
  • Add bran to soups, cereals, pastries, spaghetti sauce, minced meats and casseroles. Bran also mixes well with orange juice.
  • Use dried peas, beans, and legumes in main dishes, salads, or side dishes like rice or pasta.
  • Add dried fruit to yogurt, cereal, rice, and muffins.
  • Try brown rice and whole grain pasta.

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